Stacia A. Sower, PhD, University of New Hampshire

Stacia A. Sower, PhD
Stacia A. Sower, PhD

The Sower laboratory focuses on two species of fish, lampreys and hagfish, which are the only two living representatives of the oldest lineage of vertebrates. The overall objective of my current research has been to test the global hypothesis that the reproductive physiology of the lamprey is controlled at the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by a gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH)/receptor and glycoprotein hormone/glycoprotein hormone receptor system homologous to the system acting in gnathostomes.



  1. DANIELLE GROVE-STRAWSER, STACIA A. SOWER, PAUL M. RONSHEIM, JANE B. CONNOLLY, CARI G. BOURN, AND BEVERLY S. RUBIN. 2002. Guinea Pig GnRH: Localization and Physiological Activity Reveal That It, Not Mammalian GnRH, Is the Major Neuroendocrine Form in Guinea Pigs. Endocrinology 143 (5): 1602-1612.
  2. Calvin, J.L., C.H. Slater, T.G. Bolduc, A.P. Laudano and S.A. Sower. 1993. Multiple molecular forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brains of an elasmobranch: evidence for ir-lamprey GnRH. Peptides. 14:725-729.
  3. Stopa, E.G., S.A. Sower, C.N. Svendsen, and J.C. King. 1988. Polygenic expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in human? Peptides. 9:419-423.
  4. Fahien, C.M. and S.A. Sower. 1990. Relationship between brain gonadotropin-releasing hormone and final reproductive period of the adult male sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 80:427-437.
  5. Tobet, S.A., M. Nozaki, J. H. Youson, and S.A. Sower. 1995. Distribution of lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III) in brains of larval lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). Cell Tissue Research 279:261-270.
  6. Kavanaugh SI, Nozaki M, Sower SA. Origins of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in vertebrates: identification of a novel GnRH in a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Endocrinology. 2008 Aug;149(8):3860-9. 149(8):3860-3869
  7. Sower SA, Balz E, Aquilina-Beck A, Kavanaugh SI. Seasonal changes of brain GnRH-I, -II, and -III during the final reproductive period in adult male and female sea lamprey. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2011 Jan 15;170(2):276-82.
  8. Nozaki M, Ominato K, Gorbman A, Sower SA. The distribution of lamprey GnRH-III in brains of adult sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2000 Apr;118(1):57-67. PubMed PMID: 10753567.
  9. Sower SA, Nozaki M, Knox CJ, Gorbman A. The occurrence and distribution ofGnRH in the brain of Atlantic hagfish, an agnatha, determined by chromatography and immunocytochemistry. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1995 Mar;97(3):300-7. PubMed PMID: 7789745.
  10. SA Tobet, Nozaki M, Youson JH, Sower SA. Distribution of lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone-III (GnRH-III) in brains of larval lampreys (Petromyzon marinus). Cell Tissue Research 279:261-270.
  11. Calvin JL, Slater CH, Bolduc TG, Laudano AP, Sower SA. Multiple molecular forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the brain of an elasmobranch: evidence for IR-lamprey GnRH. Peptides. 1993 Jul-Aug;14(4):725-9.
  12. Sower SA, King JA, Millar RP, Sherwood NM, Marshak DR. Comparative biological properties of lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone in vertebrates. Endocrinology. 1987 Feb;120(2):773-9. PubMed PMID: 3542509.
  13. Sower, S.A. The Reproductive Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis. 2015. In Lampreys: Biology, Conservation and Control. Editor: M.E. Docker. Springer's Fish and Fisheries Series. Vol 37, Chapt 7. p 305-373. ISBN 978-94-017-9306-3.