Retinal Muller Cell Line rMC-1

rMC-1 immortalized cells constitutively express GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) and CRALBP (cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein) which are present in Müller cells.


  • Constitutively express GFAP and CRALBP
  • Immortalized by transfecting primary Müller cell cultures from adult rat retinas with a viral oncogene
  • Express both induced and basal markers found in primary Müller cell cultures
  • Highly useful for preclinical studies in diabetic retinopathy
  • Cell line validation performed - See: Pfeffer BA, et al. Exp Eye Res. 2016 Feb 12;145:297-316.

Müller cells are the most abundant type of glial cells found in the vertebrate retina, and perform diverse functions that support the activity of retinal neurons. This immortalized cell line facilitates gene expression studies in Müller cells and improves the understanding of Müller cell-neuron interactions.

From the laboratory of Vijay Sarthy, PhD, Northwestern University.

Catalog Number Product DataSheet Size AVAILABILITY Price Qty
Retinal Muller Cell Line rMC-1
1 vial 4-6 weeks
Regular Price:$925.00
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Product Type: Cell Line
Name: rMC-1
Cell Type: Retinal Müller (glial) cell
Accession ID: CVCL_8140
Source: Retina
Organism: Rat
Morphology: Flat
Biosafety Level: BSL1
Subculturing: Harvest cells with 0.05% trypsin for 5 min and replate
Growth Conditions: DMEM (high glucose, (+) L-Glutamine, (-) Sodium pyruvate) with 10% FBS and 1X pen/strep, with additional L-glutamine (2mM).
Cryopreservation: DMEM with 10% DMSO and 10%FBS
Storage: Liquid nitrogen
Shipped: Dry ice


Morphology and immunocytochemical characterization of Müller cells.

(a) Primary culture of Müller cells. (b) Muller cell line, rMC-1. (c) Primary Müller cell culture stained with GFAP antibody. (d) rMC-1 reacted with GFAP antibody.

Adapted from: Sarthy, V. et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39: 212-216.

From the laboratory of Vijay Sarthy, PhD, Northwestern University.
The rMC-1 cell line authenticity has been independently validated. For authentication data, see: Pfeffer, B.A., et al. (2016) Exp Eye Res. 145: 297-316.​ View Article
  1. Sarthy, V., S. Brodjian, K. Dutt, B. Kennedy, R. French and J. Crabb. Establishment and characterization of a retinal Muller cell line. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1998 Jan;39: 212-216.
  2. Kannan R, Bao Y, Wang Y, Sarthy VP, Kaplowitz N.Protection from oxidant injury by sodium-dependent GSH uptake in retinal Müller cells. Exp Eye Res. 1999 May;68(5):609-16.
  3. Lu SC1, Bao Y, Huang ZZ, Sarthy VP, Kannan R. Regulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase subunit gene expression in retinal Müller cells by oxidative stress. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Jul;40(8):1776-82.
  4. Kusner LL, Sarthy VP, Mohr S. Nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase: a role in high glucose-induced apoptosis in retinal Müller cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 May;45(5):1553-61.
  5. Du Y, Sarthy VP, Kern TS. Interaction between NO and COX pathways in retinal cells exposed to elevated glucose and retina of diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004 Oct;287(4):R735-41.
  6. Loewen N, Chen J, Dudley VJ, Sarthy VP, Mathura JR Jr. Genomic response of hypoxic Müller cells involves the very low density lipoprotein receptor as part of an angiogenic network.Exp Eye Res. 2009 May;88(5):928-37.
  7. Xue W, Du P, Lin S, Dudley VJ, Hernandez MR, Sarthy VP. Gene expression changes in retinal Müller (glial) cells exposed to elevated pressure. Curr Eye Res. 2011 Aug;36(8):754-67.
  8. Trueblood KE, Mohr S, Dubyak GR. Purinergic regulation of high-glucose-induced caspase-1 activation in the rat retinal Müller cell line rMC-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011 Nov;301(5):C1213-23. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00265.2011. Epub 2011 Aug 10. PubMed PMID: 21832250.
  9. Muto T, Tien T, Kim D, Sarthy VP, Roy S. High glucose alters cx43 expression and gap junction intercellular communication in retinal müller cells: promotes müller cell and pericyte apoptosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014 Jun 17;55(7):4327-37.
  10. Pfeffer BA, Xu L, Porter NA, Rao SR, Fliesler SJ. Differential cytotoxic effects of 7-dehydrocholesterol-derived oxysterols on cultured retina-derived cells: Dependence on sterol structure, cell type, and density. Exp Eye Res. 2016 Feb 12;145:297-316.
  11. Xi H, Katschke KJ Jr, Li Y, Truong T, Lee WP, Diehl L, Rangell L, Tao J, Arceo R, Eastham-Anderson J, Hackney JA, Iglesias A, Cote-Sierra J, Elstrott J, Weimer RM, van Lookeren Campagne M. IL-33 amplifies an innate immune response in the degenerating retina. J Exp Med. 2016 Feb 8;213(2):189-207. doi: 10.1084/jem.20150894. PubMed PMID: 26755704; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4749925. View Article
  12. Mishra S, Vazquez M. A Gal-MµS Device to Evaluate Cell Migratory Response to Combined Galvano-Chemotactic Fields. Biosensors (Basel). 2017 Nov 21;7(4). pii: E54. View Article
  13. Tien T, Zhang J, Muto T, Kim D, Sarthy VP, Roy S. High Glucose Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Retinal Müller Cells: Implications for Diabetic Retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 Jun 1;58(7):2915-2921. doi: 10.1167/iovs.16-21355. PubMed PMID: 28586916; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5460955.
  14. Picconi F, Parravano M, Sciarretta F, Fulci C, Nali M, Frontoni S, Varano M, Maria Caccuri A. Activation of retinal Müller cells in response to glucose variability. Endocrine. 2019 Jul 20. View Article
  15. Peña JS, Robles D, Zhang S, Vazquez M. A Milled Microdevice to Advance Glia-Mediated Therapies in the Adult Nervous System. Micromachines (Basel). 2019 Jul 31;10(8). View Article
  16. Ma M, Zhao S, Zhang J, Sun T, Fan Y, Zheng Z. High Glucose-Induced TRPC6 Channel Activation Decreases Glutamate Uptake in Rat Retinal Müller Cells. Front Pharmacol. 2020;10:1668. Published 2020 Feb 14. View article
  17. Peña JS, Vazquez M. VEGF Upregulates EGFR Expression to Stimulate Chemotactic Behaviors in the rMC-1 Model of Müller Glia. Brain Sci. 2020;10(6):E330. Published 2020 May 29. View article
  18. Stanchfield ML, Webster SE, Webster MK, Linn CL. Involvement of HB-EGF/Ascl1/Lin28a Genes in Dedifferentiation of Adult Mammalian Müller Glia. Front Mol Biosci. 2020 Aug 14;7:200. View artcile
  19. Cliver RN, Castro N, Russomano T, Lardieri G, Quarrie L, van der Merwe H, Vazquez M. Antioxidants Derived from Natural Products Reduce Radiative Damage in Cultured Retinal Glia to Prevent Oxidative Stress. Neuroglia. 2022; 3(3):84-98. View artcile

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