Howard Green, MD, Harvard University

Howard Green, MD
Howard Green, MD

In 1963, Dr. Green established the 3T3 line which was ideally suited to the study of oncogenic viruses. Three years later, the Green Lab discovered that human-mouse cell hybrids selectively lose human chromosomes, leading to the basis for the cloning of human genes associated with genetic diseases. In 1974, Dr. Green developed the first cell line able to differentiate into adipocytes in culture. This cell line became the basis for most studies on the factors that control adipogenesis. In that same year, the Green Lab discovered a method for the cultivation of human keratinocytes, the main cell type of the epidermis. This led to the development of the first therapeutic use of cultured cells, which has since saved thousands of lives all over the world. In 2002, Dr. Green started working on human embryonic stem cells. He subsequently defined the conditions that permit differentiation of the embryonic stem cells into keratinocytes and studied the factors that control this differentiation.



  1. Rheinwald JG, Green H. Serial cultivation of strains of human epidermal keratinocytes: the formation of keratinizing colonies from single cells. Cell. 1975 Nov;6(3):331-43.
  2. Allen-Hoffmann BL, Rheinwald JG. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagenesis of human epidermal keratinocytes in culture.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Dec;81(24):7802-6.
  3. Green H, Meuth M. An established pre-adipose cell line and its differentiation in culture. Cell. 1974 Oct;3(2):127-33.
  4. Green H, Kehinde O. An established preadipose cell line and its differentiation in culture. II. Factors affecting the adipose conversion. Cell. 1975 May;5(1):19-27.
  5. Green H, Kehinde O. Spontaneous heritable changes leading to increased adipose conversion in 3T3 cells. Cell. 1976 Jan;7(1):105-13.
  6. Djian P, Phillips M, Green H. The activation of specific gene transcription in the adipose conversion of 3T3 cells. J Cell Physiol. 1985 Sep;124(3):554-6.
  7. Iuchi S, Marsch-Moreno M, Velez-DelValle C, Easley K, Kuri-Harcuch W, Green H. An immortalized drug-resistant cell line established from 12-13-day mouse embryos for the propagation of human embryonic stem cells. Differentiation. 2006 Apr;74(4):160-6.