The Adang laboratory has focused on the target sites (e.g. receptors) in the insect midgut that determine insecticidal specificity and how those receptors differ in insects that are either naturally tolerant or have acquired resistance to Bt. Their group also participates in interdisciplinaryprojects to engineerBt d -endotoxins into soybeansand peanuts. The lab have been using isolated toxin binding proteins, and reconstituted them into membranes to determine toxin function. They are also taking a genetic approach by identifying and cloning genes encoding toxin binding proteins in Manduca sexta and Heliothisvirescens . Genes encoding binding proteins have been expressed in cultured insect cells. Recently, they have used phage technology to genetically modify the insecticidal specificity of d -endotoxins. By combining molecular and biochemical tools the challenge of insect resistance to Bt toxins can be addressed.