Polyphosphate, Medium Chain (p100)

This polyphosphate (Medium Chain, p100) is heterogeneous in size, with approximate polymer lengths ranging from ~45-160 phosphate units; modal size is about 75 phosphate units.

Highlights

  • Very similar size distribution to natural polyphosphates secreted by platelets

Polyphosphate, a linear polymer of inorganic orthophosphate, which is widespread in living organisms and which plays diverse roles in biology, has recently been shown to be a potent modulator of the human blood clotting system. Its procoagulant activity is dependent on polymer length. This medium chain polyphosphate (p100) is very similar size distribution to natural polyphosphates secreted by platelets.

In addition to being a useful tool for plasma clotting assays, polyphosphate is can be used to study bacterial growth, virulence, and bacterial membrane function.

Also available:

From the laboratory of James H. Morrissey, PhD, University of Michigan.

Catalog Number Product Size AVAILABILITY Price Qty
EUI005
Polyphosphate, Medium Chain (p100), 100mg
100mg In stock
Regular Price:$199.00

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Specifications

Product Type: Small Molecule
Name: Polyphosphate, Medium Chain (p100; biotinylated)
Chemical Formula: Nan+2PnO3n +1 n = the average number of phosphorus (P) atoms in the chain
Molecular Weight: Heterogeneous; Number average ~11.5 kDa; Range ~2 kDa to 28.5 kDa
Format: Lyophilized
Purity: <1% monophosphate
Buffer: 20 mM Hepes-NaOH pH 7.4, 5 mM EDTA
Solubility: At least 100 mM in water; <1 mM in buffers containing divalent metals (make intermediate dilutions in divalent metal ion free buffers)
Concentration: When reconstituted: 1 M (phosphate monomer) NOTE: To estimate the polymer concentration, divide the phosphate monomer concentration by the modal polymer length
Size Distribution: Mode of n: 75 (as measured by migration on PAGE)
Comments: It is recommended to use ~10.2 ug of the biotin-polyphosphate to coat all wells of a streptavidin-coated 96-well plate.
Storage: Dry material should be stored at room temperature (or lower) with dessication.

Once reconstituted:
- Stable at least 12 hours at room temperature
- Stable at least 72 hours at 4C
- Store long-term at -80C
- Aliquot for repeated use, avoiding repeated freeze-thaw cycles
- Do not store in the presence of divalent metal ions
Shipped: Ambient Temperature

Data

Size Distribution

Provider
From the laboratory of James H. Morrissey, PhD, University of Michigan.
Comments

Polyphosphate has limited solubility in the presence of divalent metal ions, so make intermediate dilutions in water, or in buffers without divalent metals or polyphosphate-binding proteins.

Reconstitution:
1 - Centrifuge 100mg tube 1 min at 1000 x g to pellet material in bottom of tube.
2 - Reconstitute in 1.0 mL purified water to make a solution of 1 M phosphate (= 102 mg/mL polyphosphate).
NOTE: May be reconstituted in larger volumes to make a more dilute solution as needed.

References
  1. Morrissey JH, Choi SH, and Smith S.A. Polyphosphate: an ancient molecule that links platelets, coagulation and inflammation. Blood 119:5972-5979, 2012.
  2. Rao NN, Gómez-García MR, and Kornberg A. Inorganic polyphosphate: essential for growth and survival. Annu Rev Biochem. 78:605-647, 2009.
  3. Dinarvand P, Hassanian SM, Qureshi SH, Manithody C, Eissenberg JC, Yang L, Rezaie AR. Polyphosphate amplifies proinflammatory responses of nuclear proteins through interaction with receptor for advanced glycation end products and P2Y1 purinergic receptor. Blood. 2014 Feb 6;123(6):935-45.
  4. Yang Y, Ko TP, Chen CC, Huang G, Zheng Y, Liu W, Wang I, Ho MR, Hsu ST, O'Dowd B, Huff HC, Huang CH, Docampo R, Oldfield E, Guo RT. Structures of Trypanosome Vacuolar Soluble Pyrophosphatases: Antiparasitic Drug Targets. ACS Chem Biol. 2016 May 20;11(5):1362-71. doi: 10.1021/acschembio.5b00724. PubMed PMID: 26907161; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4874902. View Article
  5. Schlagenhauf A, Haidl H, Pohl S, Weiss EC, Leschnik B, Gallistl S, Muntean W. Polyphosphate in Neonates: Less Shedding from Platelets and Divergent Prothrombotic Capacity Due to Lower TFPI Levels. Front Physiol. 2017 Aug 24;8:586. View Article
  6. Morrissey JH. Poly-P as Modulator of Hemostasis, Thrombosis, and Inflammation. Blood 2017 130:SCI-1.
  7. Bentley-DeSousa A, Holinier C, Moteshareie H, Tseng YC, Kajjo S, Nwosu C, Amodeo GF, Bondy-Chorney E, Sai Y, Rudner A, Golshani A, Davey NE, Downey M. A Screen for Candidate Targets of Lysine Polyphosphorylation Uncovers a Conserved Network Implicated in Ribosome Biogenesis. Cell Rep. 2018 Mar 27;22(13):3427-3439. View Article
  8. Chrysanthopoulou A, Kambas K, Stakos D, Mitroulis I, Mitsios A, Vidali V, Angelidou I, Bochenek M, Arelaki S, Arampatzioglou A, Galani IE, Skendros P, Couladouros EA, Konstantinides S, Andreakos E, Schäfer K, Ritis K. Interferon lambda1/IL-29 and inorganic polyphosphate are novel regulators of neutrophil-driven thromboinflammation. J Pathol. 2017 Sep;243(1):111-122. View Article
  9. Paquola A, Mañé N, Giron MC, Jimenez M. Diadenosine tetraphosphate activates P2Y(1) receptors that cause smooth muscle relaxation in the mouse colon. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Jul 15;855:160-166. View Article
  10. An J, Cho J. Catalytic properties of wheat phytase that favorably degrades long-chain inorganic polyphosphate. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2019 May 27. View Article
  11. Kwon SB, Yu JE, Park C, Lee J, Seong BL. Nucleic Acid-Dependent Structural Transition of the Intrinsically Disordered N-Terminal Appended Domain of Human Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Oct 3;19(10). pii: E3016. View Article
  12. Negreiros RS, Lander N, Huang G, Cordeiro CD, Smith SA, Morrissey JH, Docampo R. Inorganic polyphosphate interacts with nucleolar and glycosomal proteins in trypanosomatids. Mol Microbiol. 2018 Dec;110(6):973-994. View Article
  13. McCarthy L, Bentley-DeSousa A, Denoncourt A, Tseng YC, Gabriel M, Downey M. Proteins required for vacuolar function are targets of lysine polyphosphorylation in yeast. FEBS Lett. 2020;594(1):21-30. View article
  14. Mizrak A, Morgan DO. Polyanions provide selective control of APC/C interactions with the activator subunit. Nat Commun. 2019;10(1):5807. Published 2019 Dec 20. View article
  15. Ito T, Yamamoto S, Yamaguchi K, et al. Inorganic polyphosphate potentiates lipopolysaccharide-induced macrophage inflammatory response. J Biol Chem. 2020;295(12):4014-4023. View article
  16. Lorenzo-Orts L, Hohmann U, Zhu J, Hothorn M. Molecular characterization of CHAD domains as inorganic polyphosphate-binding modules. Life Sci Alliance. 2019;2(3):e201900385. Published 2019 May 27.  View article
  17. Negreiros RS, Lander N, Huang G, et al. Inorganic polyphosphate interacts with nucleolar and glycosomal proteins in trypanosomatids. Mol Microbiol. 2018;110(6):973-994. View article
  18. Mitsios A, Chrysanthopoulou A, Arampatzioglou A, Angelidou I, Vidali V, Ritis K, Skendros P, Stakos D. Ticagrelor Exerts Immune-Modulatory Effect by Attenuating Neutrophil Extracellular Traps. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 May 21;21(10):3625.  View article

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