Carboxyatractyloside dipotassium salt (C-ATR)

Carboxyatractyloside dipotassium salt (C-ATR) is the dipotassium salt of a diterpenoid glycoside isolated from Cocklebur seeds. It is a highly selective and potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation.

CAT is highly selective and potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Specifically, it acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor of the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) in mitochondria with high affinity (Kd = 5-10 nM). ANT is the cytosolic side-specific mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier protein. This results in stabilization of the c conformation of ANT, leading to permeability transition pore opening, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis. CAT stabilizes the nucleoside binding site of ANT on the cytoplasmic side of the inner membrane and blocks the exchange of matrix ATP and cytoplasmic ADP by forming a tight binding with the ADP/ATP carrier protein. All the chemical groups present in CAT, except the primary alcohol group of the ribose moiety, play a role in its toxicity by adding to the binding affinity of CAT to the carrier protein.

Catalog Number Product DataSheet Size AVAILABILITY Price Qty
Carboxyatractyloside dipotassium salt (C-ATR), 2mg
2mg 1-2 weeks
Regular Price:$127.50
On Sale:
Carboxyatractyloside dipotassium salt (C-ATR), 10mg
10mg 1-2 weeks
Regular Price:$510.00
On Sale:

Product Type: Small Molecule
Chemical Formula: C31H44O18S2K2
CAS number: 77228-71-8
Molecular Weight: 770.8
Format: White crystalline solid
Purity: >99 % determined by HPLC
Solubility: Soluble in water
Stability: Stable as a solid over extended period at -20C.
Storage: -20C, avoid exposure to oxygen and direct sunlight
Shipped: Ambient temperature


Carboxyatractyloside dipotassium salt HPLC Chromatogram.

Purification Notes: Carboxyatractyloside is extracted from Xanthium strumarium seeds, purified using column chromatography, and then stabilized by crystallization as the dipotassium salt C-ATR.

  1. Cole R, Stuart B, Lansden J and Cox R. (1980). Isolation and redefinition of the toxic agent from Cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium). J Agric Food Chem. 28: 1330-1332.
  2. Pebay-Peyroula E, Dahout-Gonzales C, Kahn R, Trézéguet V, Lauquin G and Brandolin G. (2003). Structure of mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in complex with Carboxyatractyloside. Nature. 426: 39-44.
  3. Vignais P, Vignais P and Defaye G. (1973). Adenoside diphosphate translocation in mitochondria. Nature of the receptor site for Carboxyatractyloside (gummiferin). Biochem. 12: 1508-1519.

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