Highly Systemic Metastatic Cell Lines
These stable cell lines were derived from spontaneously arising tumors in the inbred VM/Dk mouse strain. When injected into VM/Dk mice, the cells lead to systemic metastasis with 100% fidelity. The cells express properties of macrophages or macrophage-like cells, similar to those reported previously in several types of human metastatic cancers. This VM tumor model is useful for evaluating potential therapies for managing metastatic tumors.
- Only model showing brain metastasis following subcutaneous inoculation (intravenous injections not necessary).
- Cells express firefly luciferase under control of CMV promoter for detection using bioluminescent imaging.
- Cells are distally invasive when implanted into brain and when implanted subcutaneously into flank will metastasize to multiple organ systems within three weeks with 100% fidelity.
- Metastatic sites include liver, lung, spleen, kidney, brain, and bone marrow.
Available Cell Types:
- VM-M2 and VM-M3: When injected into mice, express all of the major biological processes of metastasis including local invasion, intravasation, immune system survival, extravasation, and secondary tumor formation. The growth characteristics and metastatic behavior for the VM-M2 cells is the same for VM-M3 cells. The VM-M2 cells arose independently of the VM-M3 cells.
- VM-NM1: When injected into mice, grows rapidly, but does not lead to metastatic disease and appears to express properties of neural stem/progenitor cells.
Metastasis is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients and remains largely unmanageable. The failure to develop effective anti-metastatic drugs has been due in large part to the absence of in vivo metastatic tumor models that represent the full spectrum of metastatic disease.
From the laboratory of Thomas N. Seyfried, PhD, Boston College.
Part of The Investigator's Annexe program.
Metastatic Histiocytoma Cell Lines
|Cell Type: ||VM-NM2 & VM-NM3: Malignant Histiocytoma, VM-NM1: Malignant Astrocytoma, |
|Organism: ||Mouse |
|Morphology: ||VM-NM2 & VM-NM3: Mesenchymal, VM-NM1: Spindle shaped |
|Source Organ/Tissue: ||Brain |
|Cell Line Name: ||VM-NM2/Fluc, VM-NM3/Fluc, VM-NM1/Fluc |
|Biosafety Level: ||BSL-2 |
|Growth Medium Conditions: ||Standard DMEM |
| Growth Properties: ||VM-NM2 & VM-NM3: Non-adherent (2 day doubling time), VM-NM1: Adherent (2-5 day doubling time) |
|Sub-culturing: ||1x106 cells into a T25 flask |
|Cryo-preservation Media: ||Complete media with 10% DMSO |
|Storage Conditions: ||Store at -180C |
|Shipped: ||Dry Ice |
In vitro morphology and in vivo growth and metastatic spread of Metastatic Histiocytoma Cell Lines
(A) Phagocytic behavior was assessed from merging (Merge) the fluorescence (F) images and the differential interference contrast (DIC) images. (B) Growth and metastatic spread of VM-M3/Fluc tumor with bioluminescence imaging of firefly luciferase. Tumors were implanted s.c and i.c.. Multiple metastases were detected in vivo following implantation.
Adapted from: Huysentruyt LC, et al. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jul 1;123(1):73-84.
- Poff AM, Ari C, Seyfried TN, D'Agostino DP. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. PLoS One. 2013 Jun 5;8(6):e65522.
- Seyfried TN, Huysentruyt LC. On the origin of cancer metastasis. Crit Rev Oncog. 2013;18(1-2):43-73.
- Strelko CL, Lu W, Dufort FJ, Seyfried TN, Chiles TC, Rabinowitz JD, Roberts MF. Itaconic acid is a mammalian metabolite induced during macrophage activation. J Am Chem Soc. 2011 Oct 19;133(41):16386-9.
- Huysentruyt LC, Akgoc Z, Seyfried TN. Hypothesis: are neoplastic macrophages/microglia present in glioblastoma multiforme?ASN Neuro. 2011 Sep 22;3(4).
- Huysentruyt LC, Seyfried TN. Perspectives on the mesenchymal origin of metastatic cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2010 Dec;29(4):695-707.
- Shelton LM, Huysentruyt LC, Mukherjee P, Seyfried TN. Calorie restriction as an anti-invasive therapy for malignant brain cancer in the VM mouse. ASN Neuro. 2010 Jul 23;2(3):e00038.
- Shelton LM, Huysentruyt LC, Seyfried TN. Glutamine targeting inhibits systemic metastasis in the VM-M3 murine tumor model. Int J Cancer. 2010 Nov 15;127(10):2478-85.
- Shelton LM, Mukherjee P, Huysentruyt LC, Urits I, Rosenberg JA, Seyfried TN. A novel pre-clinical in vivo mouse model for malignant brain tumor growth and invasion. J Neurooncol. 2010 Sep;99(2):165-76.
- Huysentruyt LC, Shelton LM, Seyfried TN. Influence of methotrexate and cisplatin on tumor progression and survival in the VM mouse model of systemic metastatic cancer. Int J Cancer. 2010 Jan 1;126(1):65-72.
- Huysentruyt LC, Mukherjee P, Banerjee D, Shelton LM, Seyfried TN. Metastatic cancer cells with macrophage properties: evidence from a new murine tumor model. Int J Cancer. 2008 Jul 1;123(1):73-84.
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